Friday, December 4, 2009

4. Criminals were in fact poor who lived by stealing lead from roofs, food from shops, lumps of coal and clothes drying on hedges.

5. They were cheats and trickesters, pickpockets and petty thieves crowding the streets of london.

6.In an attempt to discipline the population the authorities imposed high penalities for crimes and offerd work to those who were considered the deserving poor.


1.factories employed large no. of women.

2. With technological develpoment women gradually lost their industrial jobs and were forced to work within households.

3.A large no. of women used their homes to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through activities such as tailoring, washing or matchbox making.


1.A large no. of children were pushed into low paid work often by their parents.

2.It was only after the passage of Compulsory Elementry Education Act in 1870 and factory Act beginning from 1902 that childern were kept out of industrial work.


1.Older cities like London changed dramatically when people began pouring in after the industrial revolution.

2.Factory or workshop owners did not house the migrant workers,instead individual landowners put up cheap and unsafe teements for the new arrivals.

3. Poverty was visible in the city.

4.About one million Londoners were very poor and were expected to live an average life of 29years.

5. Those people were more than likely to die in a workhouse, hospitals or lunatic assylum.


1. In 1880 in his novel, '' The Gods Visits Earth" he had depicted that lord Bramha took a train to calcutta with some other gods.
2.Varuna the rain god conducted his tour to Calcutta.
3. The gods were wonderstruck by the big modern city-- the train, the large ships on the river ganges, factories belching smoke, bridges and monuments and dazzeling array of shops selling a no. of commodities.
4. But the gods were disturbed by its cheats, thieves, its grinding poverty and poor quality of housing for many.
5. gods were also perturbed at the confusion of caste religion and gender identities in the city.
Three Historical processes which have shaped modern cities in decisive ways--
1. The rise of industrial capitalism.
2. The establishments of colonial rule over large parts of the World.
3. Development of democratic ideals.
How do we distinguish betwwen cities on one hand and towns and villages on the other---
1. Towns and cities first appeared along the river valleys were larger in scale than other in human settlement.
2.Ancient cities could develop only when an increase in food supplies made it possible to support a wide range of non food producers.
3.Cities were often the centers of political power, administrative network, trade and industry, religious institutions and intellectual activities.
4. Cities themselves vary greatly in size and complexity.
5. They can be densely settled modern day metropoises.
1. By 1750 one out of every nine people of England and Wales lived in London.
It was a colossal city.
2.Its population multiplied four fold in 70 years.
3. The city of London was a powerful magnet for migrant population.
4. It is rightly said that London was a city of small masters and skilled artisans, soldiers and servants, of casual labours,street sellers and beggers.
5. During the first world war London began manfacturing motor cars and electronic goods and the number of large factories increased.
6.Apart from the london dockyard five major types of industries employed large numbers--
a) Clothing and footwear.
b) Wood and furniture.
c) Metals and engineering.
d) printing and stationary.
e) Surgical instruments.
f) Watches and objects of precious metals.

1.As London grew crime flourished.
2.The police were worried about law and order and philantherapist were worried about morality.
3. So the population of criminals was counted, their activities were observed and ways of life were investigating.

Wednesday, July 2, 2008


Resources and Development

Definition of a ‘Resource’: Everything available in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs is called resource. It should be technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable. Only then it can be termed as ‘Resource’.

Two examples are minerals and forests.

1. Classification of Resources

These are obtained from Biosphere and have life.
Eg. Human beings, flora and fauna, fisheries, livestock etc.

All Those things which are composed of non – living things are called abiotic resources.
Eg. Rocks and metals.

The Resources which can be renewed of reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable or replenishable resources.
Eg. Solar and wind energy, water, forests and wildlife etc.

They occur over a very long geological time. These resources take millions of years in their formation.
Eg. Metals, fossil fuels, etc.

These are owned privately by individuals.
Eg. Many farmers own land
Many urban people own plots, houses.

These resources which are accessible to all the member of the community.
Eg. Grazing grounds, burial grounds, village ponds, parks, picnic points, etc.

Technically all the resources are available in a country belong to that nation are called National resources.
Eg. All the mineral water resources, forests, wild life, land etc.

There are international institutions which regulate some resources. The oceanic resources beyond 200 km of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to open ocean and no individual country can utilize these without the concurrences of international institutions.

Resources which are found in a region, but have not been utilized.
Eg. Gujrat & Rajasthan have potential for the development of wind & solar energy, but so far these have not been developed properly.

Resources which are surveyed and their quality & quantity have been determined for

1.11 STOCK:
Materials in the environment which have the potential to satisfy human needs but
human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access these.
Eg. Water is a compound of two inflammable gases, hydrogen and oxygen which
Can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have the required technical
‘know how’ to use them for the purpose hence it can be considered as a stock.

They can be put into use with the help of existing technical ‘know how’ but their use
Has not been started.
Eg. River water can be use for generating hydroelectric power but presently, it is
Being utilized only to a limited extent.


The process of transformation of things available in an environment involves an interdependent relationship between nature, technology and institutions.
Human beings interact in the nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
Human beings themselves are essential components of resource. They transform material into resources and use them.


Resources are vital for human survival as well as for maintaining quality of life.
Since resources are considered free gifts of nature, human beings used them indiscriminately.
This indiscriminate use leads to the following problems:
(a) Resources are getting depleted to satisfy the greed of few individuals
(b) Resource are accumulated in few hands, which has made some people rich and some poor in the society.
(c) Indiscriminate use of resources has led to ecological crisis like global warming, ozone layer depletion, environment pollution and land degradation.


Sustainable economic development means development should take place without damaging the environment. An equitable distribution of resources is essential for sustained quality of life.

If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals & countries continues the future of our planet will come in danger.
Therefore resource planning is essential for sustainable existence of all forms of life.
Sustainable existence is a component of sustainable development.

It was the first International Earth Summit
It was held in Rio De Juneiro in Brazil.
It dealt with the problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.
The assembled leaders signed the declaration on Global Climatic Change and Biological diversity.

3.2 AGENDA 21
It is the declaration signed by world leaders in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
It aims at achieving global sustainable development and to combat environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.
Every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.


Planning is needed for the judicious use of resources.
It is important for India, as it has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.
There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources.
There are regions which are self sufficient in the availability of resources.
There are regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.
Ø State of Jharkhand, Chattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits, but lacks in infrastructural development.
Ø Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks infrastructural development.
Ø Rajasthan is rich in solar and wind energy, but lacks in water resources.
Ø Ladakh is deficient in water and some vital mineral but rich in heritage.
Ø This calls for balanced resource planning at national, state, regional and local levels.

4.2.1 Process of resource planning
1. Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country:
This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.
2. Evolving a Planning Structure:
Its appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plan.
3. Matching the resource development plans:
The resource development plan must match with the overall national development plan.

Availability of resource is necessary for the development of any region.
Resource can contribute to development only when there is technological development.
Quality of human resources and historical experiences of the people are also required.

Irrational consumption and over utilization of resources may lead to socio-economic and environmental problems.
To overcome these problems, resource conservation at various levels is important.
Conservation of resources can be done by:
1. Reasonable and judicious use of available resources.
2. Avoiding wasteful use of resources.
3. Efforts to regenerate resources.
4. Development of alternative substitute for exhaustible resources.

There is enough for everybody’s need and not for anybody’s greed.
He placed the greedy & selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology as the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.
He was against mass production and wanted to replace it with the production by the masses.


Land is natural resource of utmost importance.
It supports natural vegetation, wild life, human life, economic activities, transport and communication systems.
Land is an asset, therefore it is necessary to make use of the land with proper planning.

About 43% of the land area is plain. It provides facilities for agriculture and industries.
30% of the land has mountains. They ensure perennial flow of rivers & provide facilities for tourism and ecological aspects.
27% of the land area is the plateau region. It possesses rich resource of minerals, fossil fuels and forests.

Land Resource are used for the following purposes:
Land not available for cultivation:
(a) Barren & waste land.
(b) Land used for buildings, roads, factories, etc.
Uncultivated land.
(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land.
(b) Tree crops.
(c) Cultivable waste land (left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years)
Fallow lands:
(a) Current fallow (left uncultivated for one or less than one agricultural year)
(b) Other than current fallow (left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 years)
Net Sown Area:
(a) It is the area where the actual cultivation is done.
(b) It is also known as gross cropped area.


Physical Factors:
Include climate topography, climate, soil types, etc.
Human Factors:
Population density, technological capability and culture and tradition, etc.

Total geographical area of India is 3.28 million sq. km.
Land use data is available only for 93% of the total area.
Land under permanent pastures has decreased.
Net sown area in India is about 54%, which is a positive point.
Net sown area varies from state to state. It is over 80% in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10% in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar.
According to the National Forest Policy (1952), desired Forest area is 33% of geographical area, which is essential for maintenance of ecological balance in India, it is less.
Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas.
Non-Agricultural use include settlements, roads, railways, industry, etc.


Continuous use of land over a long period of time without taking appropriate measures to conserve and manage it, has resulted in land degradation.

At present there are about 130 Million hectares degraded land.
About 28% of it belongs to the category of forest degraded area.
56% of it is water eroded area.
The rest is affected by saline and alkaline deposits.
Some human activities such as deforestation, over grazing, mining and quarrying have also contributed significantly in land degradation.

Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete, leaving deep scars and traces of overburdening. For example in Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, M.P., and Orrisa.
In states like Gujrat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & maharashtra over grazing is one of the main reasons for land degradation.
In the states of Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh over irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to water logging, leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite & soap stone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere, which settles down on the surface.
In recent years industrial effluents as waste have become major source of land & water pollution in many parts of the country.

Afforestation and proper management of grazing.
Planting of shelter belts of plants.
Control on over grazing
Stabilization of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes
Proper management of waste land
Control of mining activities
Proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.

Soil is the most important renewable resource.
It is the medium of plant growth.
It supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
Soil is a living system.

Parent rock or bed rock
Vegetation & other forms of life

Change in temperature
Actions of running water
Wind & glaciers
Activities of decomposers
Chemical & organic changes


On the basis of factors responsible for soil formation colour, thickness, texture, age, chemical & physical properties, the soil of India can be classified in different types.
Alluvial Soil
Black Soil
Red & Yellow Soil
Laterite Soil
Arid Soil

Features of Alluvial Soil:
It is the most wide spread and important soil.
They are deposited by three important Himalayan river systems the Indus, the Ganga and the Bhramaputra.
They are found in northern plains and eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna & the Kaveri rivers.
The soil consists of various proportions of land, silt and clay.
In the upper reaches of river valley i.e. near the place of the break of slope, the soil are coarse.
Such soils are more common in piedmont plains like ‘Duars’ (when plains like starts and mountain ends) ‘chos’ (hilly of hansitional areas) and ‘Terai’ (foothill of the area)
Alluvial soils are very fertile.
Mostly they contain adequate proportion of potash, phosphoric acid and lime, which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat & pulse crop & other cereals.
These soil in the dry areas are more alkaline and can be productive after proper treatment and irrigation.


1. It is new alluvial soil. 1. It is an old alluvial soil
2. It has fine particles and is more fertile. 2. It has higher concentration of
kankar nodules in it.

Alluvial Soil

Features of Black Soil:
It is black in colour and is also known as regular soil.
Since these soils are ideal for growing cotton, so they are also known as black cotton soils.
Climatic conditions along with the parent rock material are the important factors for the formation of soil.
These soils are made up of lava flow.
They are found in North-west Deccan plateau.
It covers the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, M.P. and Chattisgarh and further extend in south east, along Godavari and Krishna valleys.
They are clayey, so are well known for their capacity to hold moisture.
They are rich in soil nutrients such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime.
They are generally poor in phosphoric content.
These soils develop deep cracks during hot weather, which helps in the proper aeration of the soil.
These soils are sticky and difficult to work unless tilled immediately after the first shower or during the pre-monsoon period.
Black soil

Features of Red and Yellow soil:
They develop on crystalline igneous rocks in area of low rainfall.
These soil develop a reddish colour due to the presence of iron in crystalline & metamorphic rocks.
It looks yellow when it occurs in a hydrated form.
They are found in parts of Orissa, Chattisgarh, southern parts of Middle Ganga plains.
They are also found in the piedmont zone of western ghats.

Red and Yellow soil

Features of Laterite Soil:
· They are formed due to leaching process, due to heavy rains.
· They develop in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall.
· Humus content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms particularly the decomposers like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature.
· They are suitable for cultivation with adequate doses of manures and fertilizers.
· These soils are mainly found in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the soil is very useful for growing tea & coffee and cashew nut.

Laterite Soil

Features of Arid Soils:
They range from red to brown in colours.
They are generally sandy in texture and saline in nature.
In some area salt content is so high that common salt is obtained by evaporating the water.
Due to dry climate, high temperature evaporation is faster and the soil lacks humus & moisture.
In lower regions soil has Kankar in it because of the increasing calcium content.
It restricts the infilitration of water.
After proper irrigation these soil become cultivable, as it is done in western Rajasthan.
Arid Soil

11.6 FOREST SOIL:Features of Forest Soil:These soil are found in the hilly areas with rain forests.
Soil texture varies according to the mountain environment.
They are loamy & silty in valley sides.
They are coarse grained in the upper slopes.
In the snow covered areas of Himalyas, they experience denudation and are acidic with low humus content.
The soils are formed in the lower parts of the valley on the river terraces and alluvial fans are fertile.
Forest Soil

The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is called soil erosion.
Soil Erosion
Due to human activities like deforestation, over grazing, construction and mining etc.
Natural forces like wind, glacier and water also leads to soil erosion.
It is also caused due to defective methods of farming.
Ploughing in a wrong way i.e. up and down the slope from channels for the quick flow of water leading to soil erosion.

Gullies: The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels called gullies.
Gully Erosion
Bad Lands: When the land becomes unfit for cultivation, it is called bad lands. Eg. Ravires in Chambal
Sheet Erosion: Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases the top soil is washed away. It is called sheet erosion.
Wind Erosion: Wind blows loose soil off flat or sloping land is called wind erosion.

Contour Ploughing: Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes.
Terrace cultivation: Steps can be cut on the slopes making terraces, it restrict soil erosion. They are practiced in western & central Himalayas.
Strip Cropping: Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.
Shelter Belts: Planting lines of trees to create shelter are shelter belts, which have contributed significantly to the stabilization of sand dunes.


Tuesday, April 15, 2008

Lesson 1


Various social groups and classes of Indians started a common struggle against a common enemy – the British rule. That is how a growing anger against the colonial government brought all of them together in the freedom struggle during the first half of 20th century. The congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi tried to channel people’s graininess into organized movements of independence. Through such movements the nationalists tried to forge a national unity. But as we have seen, diverse groups and classes participated in these movements with varied aspirations and expectations. As their grievances were wide ranging, freedom from colonial rule also meant different things to different people. The congress continuously attempted to resolve differences, and ensure that the demands of one group did not alienate another. This is precisely why the unity within the movement often broke down. The high points of congress activity and nationalist unity were followed by phases of disunity and inner conflict between the groups.

1. Feeling of Nationalism in India
Growth of nationalism in India is connected to anti colonial movement.
People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle against colonialism.
The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
Each class or group was affected by colonialism differently. So their notions of freedom were different.
The congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement.

2. Effects of the 1st World War
The war created a new economic and political situation. It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes.
Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
Through the war years prices increased leading to extreme hard ships for the common people.
Villages were called upon to supply soldiers and forced recruitment took place.
Crops failed in many parts of India resulting in acute shortage of food.
Influenza epidemic took place, people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic.

3. The idea of Satyagrah
A novel method of mass agitation called Satyagraha was used by Gandhiji in South Africa against racist regime.
The idea of Satyagraha emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.
If the struggle was against injustices, then physical force was not necessary to fight the oppressor.
Mahatma Gandhi organized Satyagraha movements in various places in India.
1. In 1916, he traveled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire the peasants to struggle against oppressive plantation system.
2. In 1917, he organized a Satyagraha in Kheda District of Gujarat to support the peasants of Kheda who could not pay the revenue because of crop failure, plague epidemic.
3. In 1918, he went to Ahmedabad to organize a Satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.

3.1 The Rowlatt Act (1919)
· The act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
· It gave the Government enormous power to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
· Gandhi wanted non violent disobedience against the unjust law; start with Hartal on 6th April 1919.

3.2 Consequences of Rowlatt Act
Rallies were organized in various cities; workers went on strike in railways workshop, shops were closed down,
The British decided to clamp down on nationalists. Local leader were picked up from Amritsar, police fired on peaceful processions in Amritsar and the provoked Indians attacked the banks, post offices, railway stations, etc.
Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

4. Jallianwala Bagh Incident
On 13th April 1919 the infamous Jallianwala Bagh incident took place. On that day a crowd of villagers had come to Amritsar to attend a fair, they were unaware of the marital law.
General Dyer entered the area, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the crowd killing hundreds. He wanted to create a feeling of terror.

4.1 Consequences of Jallianwala Bagh Incident
Crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on the government building.
The government responded with brutal repression. Satyagrahis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets; do salaam to all the sahibs. Villages were bombed.
Seeing violence spread, Gandhiji called off the movement.

5. Khilafat Movement
The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumors that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman Empire.
To defend the Ottoman Empire and the spiritual head of the Khalifa the Head of Islamic world. Khilafat committee was formed in Bombay. This committee was organized by Ali brothers (Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali) in the year 1919.

6. Non – Cooperation Movement
In his famous book Hind Swaraj, Mahatma Gandhi declared that British rule was established in India with the cooperation of Indians. If Indians refuse to cooperate British rule in India it would collapse and Swaraj would come.
Gandhiji proposed that the movement should unfold in stage.
For the success of the movement, it was necessary to bring Hindus and Muslims closer.
First Stage: Surrender of titles boycott of civil services, army, police, courts, legislative council, schools and foreign goods.
Second Stage: In case of repressive policy of British a full civil disobedience campaign would be launched.
Third Stage: Gandhiji toured extensively mobilizing popular support for the movement.

6.1 Formal adoption of Non-Cooperation Movement
At the congress session at Nagpur (December, 1920) a compromise was worked out between the supporters and the opponents of the movement and the Non-cooperation Programme was formally adopted.

6.2 Spread of Non-Cooperation Movement
All social groups responded to the call of Swaraj, but the term meant different things to different people.

6.3 The Movement in the Towns
The movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Students left government controlled schools, colleges, Head masters and teachers resigned and the lawyers gave up their legal practices. Council elections were boycotted in most provinces.
Foreign goods were boycotted; liquor shops picketed, foreign clothes were burnt in huge bonfires.
The movement gradually slowed down because Khadi cloth was more expensive that mass produced mill cloth. Boycotting British institution posed a problem. There were no alternative except Indian Institutions. Quality jobs did not give them alternate source of income. Students and teachers went back to schools. Lawyers joined back the government courts.

6.4 Reaction of peasants towards the call for Swaraj
In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. The movement was against the Talukdars and landlords, who demanded high rent and variety of other taxes.
Peasants had to do begar and work at landlords place without any payment. They regularly had to evict the land so they could not acquire right over the leased land.
The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition of begar, social boycott of oppressive landlords.
By October 1920, the Oudh Kissan Sabha was set up by Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and few others.

6.5 Congress response to the Awadh
Nehruji, Baba Ramchandra went around different villages in Awadh, trying to understand their grievances.
By October 1920, Oudh Kissan Sabha was setup.
The effort of congress was to integrate the ‘Awadh peasant struggle’ into the wider struggle.
As the movement spread, in 1921, the hours of talukdars and merchants were burnt, beggars looted. In many places, local leaders invoked to sanction all actions and aspirations.

6.6 Tribal response to the call of Swaraj
Tribal peasants understood the message of Mahatma Gandhi and the idea of Swaraj in another way.
In the forest region, the colonial government had closed large forest areas preventing people from entering the forest to graze their cattle and collect fuel wood and fruit.
This angered the hill people as their livelihood and traditional rights were being denied.
When the government began forcing them to contribute begar for road building the Gudem Hill people of Andhra Pradesh revolted.
Alluri Sitaram Raju came to lead them. Sitaram Raju was inspired by Gandhiji so he motivated the people to wear Khadi and give up drinking, but he asserted the use of force for liberation.
The tribal people did not follow the non violence path of Gandhiji. They carried on Guerilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.

6.7 Response to the call for Swaraj by the plantation workers
For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were kept.
Under Inland Emigration Act of 1859, the plantation workers were not allowed to leave the tea gardens without permission.
When they heard of the non-cooperation movement, they left the plantation and headed home. They thought Gandhi Raj was coming and they would be given land in their own villages.
They never reached home in between they were caught by the police and brutally beaten up.
Like this, the term Swaraj was interpreted by various people in their own ways, imagining it to be a time when all suffering and troubles would be over.

6.8 Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement
In February 1922, Mahatma Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-cooperation movement. He felt the movement was turning violent in many places and the satyagrahis are needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for mass struggle.
At Chauri Chaura in U.P. a peaceful demonstration was fired upon. The angry mob in turn attacked the police station burning alive 22 police men.
Gandhiji was alarmed by the violence; hence he called off the movement.

7 Formation of Swaraj Party
Within the congress, some leaders were by now tired of mass struggle and wanted to participate in the elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the government of India act of 1919.
They felt it was important to oppose the British policies within the councils.
C.R.Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
Young leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subash Chandra Bose wanted more radical mass struggle for independence.

8. Two Factors that shaped the Indian Politics
The first factor was the effect of the world wide economic depression. Agricultural prices began to fall from 1927 and collapsed after 1930.
Demand for agricultural goods fell and exports declined. The peasants found it difficult to sell their harvests and pay revenue.
The second factor, the new Troy government in Britain sent the Simon Commission. It was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes.

9. Simon Commission (1928)
Seven member team under Sir John Simon.
Simon commission arrived in India in 1928, it was greeted with the slogan ‘Go back Simon’.
All the parties including the congress and the Muslim League participated in the demonstration.
The commission was boycotted because it did not have single Indian Member.

9.1 Importance of Lahore Congress 1929 (Presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru)
26th January 1930 to be celebrated as an Independence Day.
People to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence.
A formal demand of Purna Swaraj or Complete independence was declared.

10. Civil Disobedience Movement
On 31st January 1930, Gandhiji sent to Viceroy Irwin stating 11 demands. The most stirring of all was the demand to abolish the salt law. He gave an ultimatum, that if the demands were not fulfilled by 11th March 1930, the Congress would start a civil disobedience campaign.
People were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws such as salt law.
Gandhiji found salt a powerful symbol to unite the nation. Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike, it was the most essential item of food.
Mahatma Gandhi declared that the tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production revealed as the most oppressive face of British Rule.
He started his famous march accompanied by 78 volunteers over 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal town of Dandi. They walked for 24 days. On 6th April, he reached Dandi and violated the law by making salt.

10.1 Activities during the phase of Civil Disobedience Movement
Manufacturing salt and demonstration in front of government salt factories.
Boycott of foreign clothes.
Picketing of liquor shops.
Refusal of peasants to pay revenue.
Resignation by Village officials.
Violation of forest laws.

10.2 Policy of the Government during the phase of Civil Disobedience
In the beginning the government ignored the movement, but soon got worried by the development and started arresting congress leaders.
Arrest of Abdul Gaffar Khan, led to violent clashes in Peshawar. Gandhiji’s arrest led to attack on police posts, law courts, railway stations, etc.
Peaceful Satyagrahis were attacked; women and children were beaten up.
Gandhiji once again called off the movement and entered into a pact with Lord Irwin.

10.3 Gandhiji Irwin Pact 5th March 1931
Gandhiji consented to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the Government agreed to release the political prisoners.

10.4 How did the different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement?
Rich Peasant Communities: The patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of U.P. were active in the movement. They were producers of commercial crops and were hard hut by the trade depression. The refusal of the government to reduce the revenue demand led to wide spread resentment. They supported the civil disobedience movement because for them the fight for Swaraj was struggle against high revenues.
Poor Peasants: They were small tenants cultivating land they had rented from the landlords. As the depression continued, cash incomes became lesser; they found it difficult to pay rents.
Business Class: During the First World War, Indian merchants had made huge profits and had become powerful. They now reacted against colonial policies which restricted their business activities. They formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress and the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries. Led by Purushottam Das Thakur and G.D. Birla, they joined Civil Disobedience Movement.
They saw Swaraj as a time when there would be no restriction on trade and industry.
Industrial Working Class: They fought against low wages, poor working condition. There were strikes, protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
Women: For Gandhiji salt march thousands of women came out of their homes to listen to him. In urban area they were from high caste families and in rural areas they came from rich peasant households. They began to see the service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.

10.5 The Limits of Civil Disobedience Movement
All social groups were not moved by the concept of Swaraj and were reluctant to participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
For long the congress had ignored the untouchables, who called themselves ‘Dalits’ or ‘Oppressed’.
Gandhiji wanted to eliminate untouchability and called them ‘Harijans’, the Children of God.
He organized Satyagraha to secure their entry into temples and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
But many dalit leaders began organizing themselves, demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate to choose Dalit members for legislative councils.
So Dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited.

10.6 Poona Pact
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar organized the Dalits into the Depressed Class Association in 1930.
He clashed with Gandhiji at the Second Round Table Conference by demanding separate electorates for dalits.
When the British Government conceded his demand, Gandhiji began a fast unto death.
Ambedkar ultimately signed the ‘Poona Pact’ of September 1932, which gave the depressed classes reserved seats in provincial and central legislative councils but the were to be voted in by the general electorate.

10.7 Muslim and the Civil Disobedience Movement
After the decline of the Non-cooperation Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the congress.
From mid 1920’s the congress came to be more associated with the Hindu Mahasabha.
The Hindu and Muslim communities organized religious processions, provoking communal riots.
The Congress and the Muslim league made efforts to renegotiate on alliance in 1927.
The negotiations over the question of representation failed in the all parties conference in 1928 as M.R. Jayakar of Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed.
As a result the Civil Disobedience Movement started in an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between Hindus and Muslims.
Muslim intellectuals were concerned about the status of Muslim as a minority within India. They feared, their culture and identity would be dominated by the Hindu Majority.

11. Sense of Collective Belonging
A sense of collective belonging came partly through the experience of united struggles.
These were also a variety of cultural processes through which nationalism captured people’s imagination.
Like history, fiction folklore and some popular prints and symbols all played a part in the making of nationalism.

11.1 Bharat Mata
In the 20th century with the growth of nationalism the identity of India came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata. Abanindranath Tagore painted his famous image of Bharat Mata, she was portrayed as an ascetic figure, calm, composed, divine and spiritual.

11.2 National Song
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhya in the 1870 wrote Vande Mataram as a hymn to the motherland. Later it was included in his novel ‘Anandmath’.

11.3 Indian Folklore
In the late 19th century India, nationalists began recording folk tales sung by bards and they toured villages to gather folk songs and legends. It was essential to preserve one’s national identity and restore a sense of pride in one’s past. In Madras, In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore led the movement for folk revival.

11.4 Flags
During Swadeshi Movement in Bengal a tri-color flag was designed. It had eight lotus representing eight provinces of British India, a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. By1921 Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag. It was also Tricolor and had a spinning wheel in the centre representing Gandhian ideal of self help.

11.5 Reinterpretation of History
Looking into glorious past by the end of the 19th century many Indians felt that to instill a sense of pride in the nation, Indian history had to be thought about differently. Indians started looking into the past to rediscover India’s achievements. They wrote about the development in ancient times when art, architecture, science, mathematics, religion, culture, law, crafts and trade had flourished.
When past being glorified was Hindu and celebrated images were drawn from Hindu iconology, the people of other communities felt left-out.

Nationalism: Patriotism; a feeling of collective belonging to one’s nation; sharing common feelings of identity.
Nation-states: A state having common territory and inhabited by people sharing common language, race, culture, etc.
Satyagraha: A method of agitation and protest, based on truth and non-violence. This was first introduced by Gandhiji in Indian National Movement.
Rowlatt Act: An Act passed by British Government in India in 1919. It authorized the government to arrest and imprisons a person without trial. The act was against civil rights.
Khalifa: The spiritual and temporal head of all Muslims or the Muslim world. Khalifa was also the ruler of Turkey till 1922.
Boycott: A method of resistance used by Indian nationalists under which they refused cooperation with the British in every sphere – stopping to use foreign goods by not attending British institutions.
Picket: A method of protest by which the people block the entrance of a shop, factory or office. One or more persons stand outside a place of work or shop to dissuade others from entering.
Begar: Forced labor compelling people to work free without any remuneration.
Martial Law: Law of military government. When martial laws were imposed, ordinary laws are suspended.
Civil Disobedience: Refusal to comply with certain laws as a method of peaceful protest.
Gudem rebels: The people who participated in the militant guerilla movement in the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh. It was a resistance movement against the colonial government who prevented the people from entering the forests for gazing their cattle or collect firewood or fruits from the region.


Non-Cooperation Movement
A mass movement aim to achieve Swaraj.
Participation of all section of society but they gave different meaning to Swaraj.
Tremendous Hindu-Muslim unity.
Ultimately the movement called off by 1922.
First World-War
Brought economy misery.
Large scale demonstration.
Passing of Rowlatt Act to check demonstration.
Launch of Khilafat movement.
Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Further arose the anger of the people.
Role of Mahatma Gandhi
Made national movement a mass movement.
Innovative method of Satyagraha attracted common people.
Champion of Hindu Muslim unity.
Great Social reforms.
Civil Disobedience
Aim to achieve Purna Swaraj.
Participation of people on large scale.
All that in lacked, Hindu Muslim unity.
Participation of women on large scale.
Called off by Gandhiji-Irwin Pact

Sunday, December 2, 2007




This is a form of hierarchical social division seen everywhere, but is rarely recognized in the study of politics. The gender division tends to be understood as natural and unchangeable.


1. Boys and girls are brought up to believe that the main responsibility of women is housework and bringing up children.
2. This is reflected in the sexual division of labour in most families; women do all work inside the home such as cooking, washing clothes and tailoring etc and men do all the work outside the home.
3. When these jobs are paid for, men are ready to take op these works in hotel industry or as tailors.
The result of this division of labour is that although women constitute half of the humanity, their role in public life especially politics is minimal in most socities
1. earlier only men were allowed to participate in public affairs, vote and contest for public offices.
2. Gradually the gender issue was raised in poltics.
3. Women in different parts of the world organized and agitated for equal rights.
4. There were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights for women.
5. These agitations demanded improving the political and legal status of women and improving their educational and career opportunities.
6. More radical women’s movements aimed at equality in personal and family life as well. These movements are called FEMINIST WOMEN .

We now find women working as sciencetists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers and college university teachers which were earlier not considered suitable for women


1. Combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous.
2. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of the country.
3. Northern Island has bitter Ethno- political conflict, as its population is divided in Roman Catholics and Protestants.
4. The Catholics were represented by Nationalist party and demanded that Northern Island be unified with the Republic of Ireland.
5. The Protestants were represented by The Unionists, who wanted to remain with U.K.
6. Hundreds of civilians and security forces were killed in the fight between unionists and Nationalists.
7. It was only in 1998 that the UK govt. and the Nationalists reached a peace treaty after which their armed struggle was suspended
8. Yugoslavia’s political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to its disintegration.
9. Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most of the countries of the world.
10. Social divisions affect voting in most countries as people from one community tend to prefer some party more than others.


Three Factors are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions----
1. The outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people see their identities in singular terms, it becomes difficult to accommodate .Most people in our country see their identity as Indian as well as belonging to a particular religion or a language.
2. It depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.
3. It depends on the how the govt. reacts to the demands of different groups. If the govt. try to suppress a demand on the name of national unity, such attempts of forced integration sow the seeds of disintegration.

In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. But a positive attitude towards diversity and willingness to accommodate do not come about easily. Sometimes social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequalities and injustice. The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the path of violence and defiance of state power. However democracy is the best way to fight for accommodating diversity.


1. On what ground can people have differences?
2. Name one social diversity and one social identity among Tommy Smith, John Carlos and Peter Norman.
3. Which social differences are usually based on accident of birth?
4. Name some social groups or identities based on one’s own choice.
5. When does a social difference become a social division?
6. Justify giving an example that social divisions are not always dangerous.
7. “Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries “Justify.
8. “Social divisions affects politics” Explain giving two examples.
9. Explain three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.
10. “Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversities” Justify.